Squeezed Light May Improve Gravitational Wave Detectors

first_imgLaser interferometer gravitational wave detectors use laser light to measure the distances between mirrors. And light, being an electromagnetic (EM) field, is quantum in nature. EM fields contain quantum noise, fluctuations that make the beams less “sharp,” so to speak. Fluctuations mean that the physical parameters describing the beam are not fixed, but instead have built-in uncertainty or fuzziness, which limits the sensitivity of a gravitational wave detector.The researchers in this study, from several institutions in the U.S. and Australia,* seem to have found a solution to this problem: using “squeezed” light. When light is squeezed, the fluctuations of one parameter, such as the light wave’s amplitude, can be reduced at the expense of increased fluctuations of another parameter, such as its phase. The amplitude is a measure of the number of photons in the light beam, while the phase describes its location in time. Quantities corresponding to amplitude and phase are called quadratures, and quantum mechanics allows the uncertainty in one quadrature to be reduced as long as the uncertainty in the complementary quadrature increases.In this case, the scientists squeezed one quadrature of the light, decreasing its quantum noise. While the noise of the other quadrature is necessarily increased, it is a quadrature they don’t need to measure. By injecting the squeezed EM field in their prototype detector, the scientists were able to make it 44 percent more sensitive.“The significance of this work is that it forced us to confront and solve some of the practical challenges of squeezed state injection—and there are many,” said Massachusetts Institute of Technology physicist Nergis Mavalvala, the team’s leader. “We are now much better positioned to implement squeezing in the kilometer-scale detectors, and catch that elusive gravitational wave.” she added.Gravitational wave detectors work, in general, by interfering two laser beams that have traveled very long distances. The beams travel down two arms that form a 90 degree angle. While each arm is up to 4 kilometers in length, mirrors reflect the beams back and forth multiple times, effectively increasing the arm length to a few hundred kilometers. If a gravitational wave from deep space alters the length of each arm, the change to the laser interference pattern will be measurable.Existing gravitational wave detectors are so sensitive that they have already approached the quantum limit. They include the two LIGO (Laser Interferometry Gravitational Wave Observatory) facilities in Washington and Louisiana, both operated jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the California Institute of Technology; and Europe’s largest gravitational wave detector, Virgo, located in Italy.The researchers say that the next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to both LIGO facilities, will boast some impressive improvements, but further advancements will have to rely on quantum techniques such as squeezing.Citation: K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala Nature Physics advance online publication, 30 March 2008 DOI:10.1038/nphys920*Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia; Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York; and The Australian National University, Canberra, AustraliaCopyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Part of the light-squeezing experimental setup. Photo taken by research-team member Keisuke Goda. Citation: ‘Squeezed’ Light May Improve Gravitational Wave Detectors (2008, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-06-gravitational-detectors.html Aerial view of the LIGO interferometer in Hanford, Washington. Photo courtesy LIGO Laboratory. Pair of supermassive black holes discovered on a collision coursecenter_img Explore further A research collaboration has taken steps toward improving the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors, devices designed to measure distance changes as minute as one-thousandth the diameter of a proton. Scientists hope these detectors can one day further verify Einstein’s theory of general relativity and even open a new window into the strange workings of the universe. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Gravitational waves, such as those emitted by extremely massive astronomical sources like neutron stars and black holes, can change the distance between two objects—even if that distance change is almost incomprehensibly small—by altering the shape of spacetime. Devices that can sense gravitational waves are among the most sensitive position meters ever built, but, right now, their abilities are inherently limited by quantum mechanics.last_img read more

Transcend Introduces their 64GB Jet Flash V20 USB Flash Drive

first_imgImage courtesy of Cool Gadgets Zone Transcend Information, Inc. is a leading manufacture of flash memory products. The V20 is small enough to fit into your shirt pocket and has semi-transparent color-band that lights up when in use. With 64 GB of storage space, the V20 makes it ideal for backing up music files, videos, digital photos and just about anything else that you may need to backup. Citation: Transcend Introduces their 64GB Jet Flash V20 USB Flash Drive (2008, September 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-09-transcend-64gb-jet-v20-usb.html Transcend also makes available, for download, a powerful software utility, JetFlash elite data management tool. This software can be installed on a Windows, Mac or Linux base machine. This software also lets you automatically log on to website accounts, store all your bookmark favorites and even check your email. All Transcend flash memory is made with the best chips available to ensure top performance and is backed by a lifetime warranty. Because of its small physical size and large storage capacity, the Jet Flash V20 makes it the ideal high-storage flash drive to meet one’s backup needs. Product features include:• 64 GB storage capacity• Lifetime warranty• High-Speed USB2.0 interface• Pocket size and easy to handle• Free powerful data management software• Website auto logon• PC lock: lets you lock and un-lock your computer• Browse bookmark websites on any computer• Password protect files with powerful data encryption • Backup, restore and synchronize mobile data• 100% quality tested and verifiedvia: CoolGadgetsZone and Transcend This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Puffin the oneperson electric aircraft w Video

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — NASA engineers have designed an extremely quiet one-person electrically powered aircraft that can hover like a helicopter and fly like a plane. The “Puffin” launches from an upright position with the tail split into four legs that serve as stable landing/take-off gear. Explore further The 3.7-meter-long craft has two wings with a combined wingspan of 4.1 meters. Each wing is has a 2.3 meter wide propeller. Flaps on the wings direct the air from the rotors upward while the aircraft is on the ground, and then direct it downwards allowing the Puffin to rise, and then hover as it leans over to begin its flight with the craft (and pilot) horizontal.The aircraft was designed by NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, in collaboration with the National Institute of Aerospace, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and M-DOT Aerospace. It is designed to be manufactured from carbon fiber composites and would weigh only around 135 kg, plus 45 kg of rechargeable lithium phosphate batteries.The Puffin’s electric motors produce virtually no emissions, and can lift its payload of one person with only 60 horsepower. The motors are up to 95% efficient, while internal combustion engines the same size would only rate at around 20% efficient, and electric motors are up to 20 times more reliable than piston engines because they have fewer moving parts. Citation: Puffin: the one-person electric aircraft (w/ Video) (2010, January 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-01-puffin-one-person-electric-aircraft-video.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The electric motors are also super-quiet, producing only 50 decibels at 150 meters, which makes the Puffin about 10 times less noisy than even low-noise helicopters. This may mean that if the Puffin is used for personal travel or courier services, an airport may not be needed at all, and the Puffin could land and take off from a private residence without annoying neighbors. The motors are not only quiet, they generate less heat than internal combustion engines, and the combination could make the craft ideal for military applications such as covert spying operations. The cruising speed of the Puffin is expected to be 240 kph, with spurts of 480 kph possible. The engine does not require air, which means its flight capabilities are not limited by thin air, and it could fly as high as 9,150 meters. With a full charge, the batteries could keep the plane aloft for only 80 kilometers at cruising speed, but as new batteries are developed this is likely to increase substantially, perhaps to over 300 kilometers by 2017. Flight Tests Confirm New Technologies Can Help Quiet The Skies Safety features in the Puffin include a motor design that allows parts of either motor to fail with no reduction in power to the propellers. It is also designed to be able to take a hard, forceful landing with most of the load taken by the landing gear, instead of the pilot as it is in other single person aircraft designs.The device was dubbed the Puffin because the bird of that name resembles the craft in looking awkward, and in seeming to have wings too small to fly. It’s also a solitary bird, and its habit of hiding its droppings makes it environmentally friendly, like the craft.The design of the Puffin was unveiled on January 20 by NASA aerospace engineer Mark Moore, at a meeting of the American Helicopter Society in San Francisco. A one-third scale demonstration model is expected to be finished by March this year, after which time they will concentrate on the transition between cruise flight and hovering.Moore said they are already planning future generations of the Puffin, in which there would be enough redundancy that if one propeller was completely out of action the aircraft could still fly safely, and there would be no single point of failure. © 2010 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

Best of Last Week – Evidence of quarkgluon interactions new portable device

first_img In news of a completely different nature, researchers discovered a hack that allows access to personal data on Windows, Android and iOS devices—in testing they found they could access the devices between 82 and 92 percent of the time, which meant they were able to hack the accounts of services used on those devices, and frustratingly, there doesn’t appear to be a way to block it. In other scary news, a team of researchers in Denmark has found a link between the common antibiotic clarithromycin and heart deaths—it’s used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.More optimistically, a group working at Michigan State University has found a way to create a new type of solar collector that doesn’t block the view—because it’s clear. And if you’ve been wondering why global warming is taking a break, a team in Switzerland thinks it’s because of El Niño/La Niña and solar fluctuations. And finally, if you were hoping to be part of the generation of people that live forever, you may be out of luck as a team of researchers has concluded that living forever may never be possible—sadly, they think they’ve found evidence that we humans have reached a plateau. Explore further Citation: Best of Last Week – Evidence of quark-gluon interactions, new portable device hack and why we may never live forever (2014, August 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-08-week-evidence-quark-gluon-interactions-portable.html Researchers find first direct evidence of ‘spin symmetry’ in atoms (Phys.org) —With summer drawing to a close, research is starting to heat up. Last week, physicists at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider used supercomputer calculations to offer evidence that particles predicted by the theory of quark-gluon interactions are being produced in heavy-ion collisions—it’s the first such evidence found and it should offer scientists a way to mimic condition that existed 14 billion years ago. Also, researchers at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics in Denver Colorado have found the first direct evidence of “spin symmetry” in atoms. The team used an ultra-stable laser and their findings could lead to a better understanding of superconductivity and colossal magneto-resistance. Meanwhile, another team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory demonstrated ultra low-field nuclear magnetic resonance using Earth’s magnetic field—it was a proof of concept experiment looking into ways to sense the interior chemical and physical attributes of an object from a distance, without sampling or encapsulating it. And in another first, physicists at Yale University have succeeded in chilling the world’s coolest molecules—they cooled samples of strontium monofluoride, to 2.5 thousandths of a degree above absolute zero using a laser isolating and cooling process—it’s the lowest temperature ever achieved by scientists for a molecule.center_img © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This is an illustration of symmetry in the magnetic properties — or nuclear ‘spins’ — of strontium atoms. JILA researchers observed that if two atoms have the same nuclear spin state (top), they interact weakly, and the interaction strength does not depend on which of the 10 possible nuclear spin states are involved. If the atoms have different nuclear spin states (bottom), they interact much more strongly, and, again, always with the same strength. Credit: Ye and Rey groups and Steve Burrows/JILAlast_img read more

Organic bromine compounds—another threat to the ozone layer

first_imgThe ozone layer of the lower stratosphere is an extremely diffuse abundance of O3 that absorbs up to 99 percent of incoming ultraviolet solar radiation, thereby creating the conditions that make known life possible. In the 1970s and 1980s, as scientists reported the dramatic thinning of stratospheric ozone, a regulatory push by governments around the world led to a reduction in the use of chlorofluorocarbons by industry. Nonetheless, other compounds released into the atmosphere have the effect of depleting ozone, though the dynamics are still the subject of study. More information: Maria A. Navarro et al, Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1511463112 © 2015 Phys.org NASA study shows that common coolants contribute to ozone depletion Until recently, scientists believed that only long-lived compounds like halons, chlorofluorocarbons or bromomethane contributed to global ozone depletion. Inconsistencies in stratospheric observations led researchers to look for another contributor, very short-lived brominated substances (VSLorg). These are generated by ocean biogenic sources with cyclic variabilities that are not well understood. However, activity that increases the production of VSLorg will also tend to accelerate the depletion of atmospheric ozone.Now, a cross-disciplinary collaborative of chemists and atmospheric researchers has reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on their analysis of data collected by NASA’s Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) over the tropical Pacific region during 2013 and 2014. The experiment included measurements of organic bromine substances conducted with the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS). The researchers combined the aircraft observations with a chemistry-climate model in an attempt to quantify the total bromine load in the atmosphere.One surprising finding was the similarity of the amounts of bromine between the Eastern and Western Pacific Ocean, despite their different vertical transport mechanisms into the atmosphere. The study found ~6 parts per thousand to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause, the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The differences between the two regions were considered to be scientifically negligible. The authors write, “Based on the CAM-chem simulation results, the overall contribution of VSL substances to total stratospheric bromine, quantified at ~17 km, show 5.81 ppt over the Western Pacific and 6.20 ppt over the Eastern Pacific. These results point out that although the production of Bry seems to be slightly different between the Eastern and Western Pacific, the overall contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine is similar in both regions.” They note that uncertainties remain in the characterization of the overall contribution of VSL substances to total stratospheric bromine because all of the results described by the study are derived from model calculations. However, comparing the results of the NASA sampling activities in 2013 and 2014 to other studies conducted in 1996 and 2006 reveals a global decline in the level of atmospheric methyl bromide; over the same period, halons increased, reaching a maximum between 2004 and 2008, with an ensuing slow decline. The researchers do not believe that this is a long-term trend, though, because patterns of variability have not been established for such compounds in the atmosphere. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Organic bromine compounds—another threat to the ozone layer (2015, November 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-bromine-compoundsanother-threat-ozone-layer.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienceslast_img read more

Study of zircon crystals casts doubt on evidence for early development of

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Are Rossby waves to blame for Earth’s magnetic field drifting westward? Scientists have long been curious about the development of the Earth’s magnetic field—it is believed to be part of the process that made life possible on the planet because it shields the atmosphere from the solar wind. But it is not known when it first appeared. Scientists believe that the field exists due to the spin of the Earth’s metal core, but that theory was tested when researchers found something intriguing when studying zircon crystals from Jack Hills in Western Australia. The crystals were found to be between 3.3 and 4.2 billion years old, suggesting they could offer evidence of conditions when the planet was still forming. They noted that the crystals were magnetic, suggesting that they had been magnetized by a planetary magnetic field. But prior research has suggested the Earth’s core did not harden until much later—thus, the magnetic field would have been created by a liquid core. In this new effort, the researchers claim to have found evidence that suggests the crystals could have become magnetized much later than their creation date, casting doubt on their use as evidence of a liquid core-generated magnetic field.The researchers found nano-sized holes in the crystals that appeared to have resulted from radiation damage. That allowed magnetite to accumulate within the tiny holes long after the crystals had developed. The researchers note that magnetite is very easily magnetized (hence its name) and will retain magnetism for very long periods of time, as long as it is not exposed to temperatures above 550°C. This finding suggests that the magnetism in the crystals could have developed long after the crystals formed—and it prevents them from being used as evidence for the existence of a planetary magnetic field during its creation stages.center_img More information: Fengzai Tang et al. Secondary magnetite in ancient zircon precludes analysis of a Hadean geodynamo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811074116 © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Study of zircon crystals casts doubt on evidence for early development of magnetic field (2019, January 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-zircon-crystals-evidence-early-magnetic.html A combined team of researchers from the University of Cambridge and the University of California has found evidence that casts doubt on the use of zircon crystals as evidence of early development of the Earth’s magnetic field. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes testing they conducted on the crystals and what they found.last_img read more

The Amazon Rainforest Ablaze In Brazil

first_img Ueslei Marcelino The Amazon Rainforest, Ablaze In Brazil by NPR News Suzette Lohmeyer 8.23.19 1:20pm Fires in Brazil’s Amazon rainforest are proliferating at an alarming rate. “Our house is burning. Literally. The Amazon rain forest – the lungs which produces 20% of our planet’s oxygen – is on fire,” French President Emmanuel Macron wrote in a tweet Thursday.He called it an “international crisis” and urged members of the G7 to prioritize the issue at its summit this weekend.Many of the fires are believed to have been set by farmers clearing land. Environmentalists say the attitude of Brazil’s right-wing president, Jair Bolsonaro, has encouraged the farmers, as well as cattle ranchers, loggers and miners, NPR’s Scott Neumann reports.Bolsonaro has described measures to protect the rainforest as “obstacles” to economic growth. Bolsonaro, who took office in January, has said repeatedly that he wants to open the Amazon to development.According to Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research, there have been 74,155 fires in Brazil so far this year — most of which erupted in the Amazon, reports NPR’s Colin Dwyer. That represents an astonishing leap of more than 80% over last year and by far the most that the agency has recorded since it began compiling this data in 2013.About half those fires, or nearly 36,000 of them, have ignited in just the past month. That’s nearly as many as in all of 2018. Smoke from the fires has darkened the skies over major Brazilian cities such as São Paulo.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

Art for arts sake

first_imgTo achive this objective a three days Art Education Seminar and Workshop was organised by Lalit Kala Akademi from 21 to 24 January.The attempt of Lalit Kala Akademi in conducting this seminar was to act as a catalyst and in bringing art veterans and budding artistes under one roof, to be able to gain out of the distinguished speakers that have dedicated their life time to art and culture. During the three days the audience consisted of students, professors and masters from diverse disciplines. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Renowned people from various fields like Ravinder Singh, secretary, ministry of culture, Subhadra Mitra Channa, professor, department of anthropology, DU, senior curator and art critic Gayatri Sinha, were part of the first day  of the seminar to speak on the Importance of Art Education.Commenting on the art eduction Sadanand Menon, eminent art critic said that, ‘The necessity for the revitalisation of art education is not a matter of dispute. Education is the ability to ask questions and not be passive receivers of knowledge. Arts political, economic and social dimension should be recognised and promoted.’ The last day of the event, witnessed a splendid display of exhibition by various artists from different states. Artist from different disciplines were invited like Nathu Lal Verma for Fresco, Jayesh Kumar L Mandanka and Sompura for Stone Carving, Dadhi Pathak for Bamboo Art, Panditram for Bhittit Chitra and Jali work, Partha Dasgupta who made beautiful jewellery from Terracotta tiles. Also at display were Thangka Paintings, Pata Paintings, Kangra Paintings, Dogra Casting and more. The Artist that came depicts the diversity of the Indian culture through their performances, art and interdisciplinary workshop. Arts Education fosters both cultural awareness and promotes cultural practices which are transmitted from one generation to the next. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixVenkat Raman Shyam from Madhaya Pradesh presented Gonda art tradition says that art is a unique form which should be improvised with the modern time and therefore is placed in the category of contemporary art. Further the artist use contemporary mediums like acrylic. The other demonstration includes the stone carvers from the Akshar Dham Temple, handloom weavers form Pata-silk tradition and North East handloom weavers. The Seminar and Workshop reflected the ideology that arts are both the manifestation of culture and the means of communication.last_img read more

Music at its highest note

first_imgAfter travelling to Kolkata, Bengaluru and Pune, the festival came to its final pit stop city for 2014 at Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida on 29 November.The second day of the festival brought along some thunderous performances. From the band, Dinosaur Pile Up (UK) rocking the audience to Alo Wala (Denmark) who delivered an explosive dance floor experience. One of India’s biggest musical bands Indian Ocean played from their latest album Tandanu musicians like Pt. Vishwamohan Bhat, Kumaresh Rajagopalan, and Vishal Dadlani. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Composer Amit Trivedi took on the stage which left the audiences asking for more. The Vaccines took the whole festival to a musically high note.Alongside an amazing music experience, the Bacardi NH7 Weekender this year also makes for an incredible audio visual spectacle! The first day of the festival witnessed Songhoy Blues, all the way from Mali, Africa, charming the audiences with their refreshing brand of blues rock and The Raghu Dixit Project featuring Nritarutya. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe funnymen from AIB had people in splits with their signature brand of edgy humor. A major international act including American heavy metal superstars Fear Factory to the soulful and mellifluous voice of critically acclaimed singer-songwriter Luke Sital-Singh was also marked.At this year’s edition, festival goers get delectable food options to dive into with specially curated food stalls, and even an exclusively created Bacardi NH7 Weekender ice-cream flavour by Hokey Pokey! This year, over 100 artistes played at the Bacardi NH7 Weekender’s four editions – Kolkata, Bengaluru, Pune and Delhi.last_img read more

10yearold killed 2 others injured in fire

first_imgKolkata: In a tragic incident, a 10-year-old boy was killed and two others injured when a fire broke out inside his house at Arambagh in Hooghly.The incident took place in the wee hours of Wednesday.The mother of the 10-year-old boy and his brother received severe burn injuries and they are undergoing necessary treatment in Arambagh Sub-divisional Hospital.Police came to know after preliminary investigation that the fire had spread from a candle that the victim Shantanu Khetrapal’s mother Bela Devi had lit before going to bed last night. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThere were three people in the house when the fire broke out and they did not even realise when the fire broke out. It was the locals who saw smoke billowing out of a window of the house and initiated the rescue work.Bela Devi panicked and couldn’t find any way out of the house with Shantanu and her younger son as a major portion of the house was engulfed by the fire.Some of the local youth had managed to extinguish the fire to enter the house. They somehow managed to bring all three of them out of the house and took them to the hospital. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAll three of them were admitted to the hospital and the doctors had initiated necessary treatment. Shantanu succumbed to his burn injuries while his mother and brother are fighting for their lives.Police came to know that the fire spread fast as there were inflammable materials in the house. Locals told the police that a man went out for some work in the wee hours when he noticed that the house was on fire. He started crying for help and then more people from the locality came to the spot and initiated the rescue work.last_img read more