Professor contrasts two WWI interpretations

first_imgJohn Deak, assistant professor of history at Notre Dame, gave a lecture Thursday on the divide between mainstream and revisionist interpretations of the Habsburg Empire’s downfall during World War I, as part of the Nanovic Institute World War I Lecture Series.“What I’ve seen in the last 30 years is a complete and utter gap between what World War I historians say about the Habsburg empire and what Habsburg scholars … say about the empire,” Deak said. “The problem is that we don’t talk to each other.”Deak said traditional scholarship views the Habsburg Empire as an outdated monarchy in decline even before the outbreak of World War I.“The Habsburg Empire is seen and written about as a weak political anachronism … that isn’t equipped to survive [after World War I],” Deak said. “It’s been cast as a historical breaking point when the golden epoch of the 19th century Europe crashes to an end.”Revisionists, on the other hand, view the Habsburg Empire as a functioning monarchy and seek alternative explanations for its collapse, he said.“The Habsburg Monarchy was vibrant: it was a functioning state under the rule of law,” Deak said. “I think [World War I] killed the empire in a dramatic way, but since the 1920’s … this idea has been completely downplayed.”Despite Austria-Hungary’s best efforts, World War I destroyed many years of political and infrastructural improvement, Deak said.“This bureaucratic state of trying to manage democracy and build infrastructure was completely thrown out the window,” he said “By the time 1917 comes around … there’s no way to put the thing back together again.”Many historians also overlook Austria-Hungary’s resilience during the war, Deak said, as the empire was forced to raise three armies between 1914 and 1916 despite losing over a million soldiers.Further study of the Habsburg Empire not only provides a better understanding of the causes of collapse, but it also sheds light on the war’s effects on Europe, he said.“We need to give the war more credit than we do,” he said. “I think if we tune our focus on understanding why an empire, which was continually evolving and aiming for multinational democracy … could collapse so quickly, we might understand the First World War in more important ways.”Though this revisionist argument provides “common-sense interpretations” on the downfall of Austria-Hungary, academia still favors the traditional view of a failing empire, Deak said.“The trope that the Habsburg monarchy in 1914 was on the verge of collapse when war broke out is something we’re going to see more and more of in the literature being published today,” he said.According to Deak, part of this divide is because World War I historians spend little time studying the Habsburg Empire, focusing only on the brief month of activity during which Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in June of 1914.“Historians of the First World War generally develop some interest in the Habsburg monarchy, but then they either forget it or they kick it off,” Deak said.In addition to viewing Austria-Hungary as the “sick-man” of Europe, “generalist” World War I scholars also believe the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy enabled the multiple nations formerly comprising the empire to develop as modern states, he said.“The First World War is the point in time that open the gates of this prison and lets these prisoners out,” Deak said. “This largely fits into the trope that the First World War was this modern cataclysm that broke open Central Europe.”Deak said it is important to recognize the effects of this divide in historical interpretation.“When we commemorate one thing, we inevitably don’t say other things,” he said. “I think history has become quite esoteric over the last 30 years.”Tags: austria-hungary, franz ferdinand, habsburg empire, history, john deak, nanovic lecture series, nanovice institute WWI series, WWI, WWI lecture serieslast_img read more

Artist Michelle Drummond to exhibit work at South Florida galleries

first_imgRising Jamaican multimedia fiber artist Michelle Drummond will be opening her newest, highly anticipated collection, “Les Derrieres”, at the Arts Warehouse on April 1. The opening ceremony for the installation will be held at the incubator’s Art Walk event on April 5, and the exhibit will remain on display until April 30. MicDrummond is a resident artist at the highly regarded Arts Warehouse arts incubator in Delray Beach, where she has called home for the past two years. The 42-year-old moved to the US from Jamaica in 1995, and spent many years in Washington DC working as program manager before taking a leap of faith to pursue her true calling as a full-time, professional artist.Her unique artistry includes the manipulation of multicolored strings using glue and acrylic paint on canvas. “My work pays homage to women across the world facing difficulties just surviving,” Drummond explains. Her pieces also speak to her experiences living in the United States, as well as her Jamaican cultural background. Drummond is also focused on expanding her line of t-shirts. Each tee within the stylistic contemporary line carries an image from her collection, and speaks to an aspect of female and self-empowerment. For more about Michelle Drummond, her t-shirt line and upcoming exhibits, visit her website at read more

William Hill fined £6.2m for social responsibility & AML failures

first_img SBC Magazine Issue 10: Kaizen Gaming rebrand and focus for William Hill CEO August 25, 2020 StumbleUpon Share Winning Post: Swedish regulator pushes back on ‘Storebror’ approach to deposit limits August 24, 2020 Share UKGC launches fourth National Lottery licence competition August 28, 2020 The William Hill Group (WHG) is to pay a £6.2m penalty package for “systemic social responsibility and money laundering failures.”A near two year Gambling Commission (UKGC) investigation, undertaken between November 2014 and August 2016, found that senior management failed to mitigate risks, with a sufficient number of staff members not on hand to ensure anti-money laundering (AML) and social responsibility processes were effective.As a result ten customers were able to deposit £1.2m of money linked to criminal offences, and from which William Hill gained.Neil McArthur, Executive Director at the UKGC, said: “We will use the full range of our enforcement powers to make gambling fairer and safer.“This was a systemic failing at William Hill which went on for nearly two years and today’s penalty package – which could exceed £6.2m – reflects the seriousness of the breaches.“Gambling businesses have a responsibility to ensure that they keep crime out of gambling and tackle problem gambling – and as part of that they must be constantly curious about where the money they are taking is coming from.”The UK bookmaker is to pay a total of £5m for regulation breaches, including a divestment of the £1.2m earned from the transactions, and where victims of the customers can be identified, they are to be duly reimbursed.In its statement, William Hill acknowledged “a number of cases where former policies were insufficient to ensure full regulatory compliance, particularly in relation to the identification of the possible proceeds of crime.”With its CEO, Philip Bowcock, commenting: “William Hill has fully co-operated with the Commission throughout this process, introducing new and improved policies and increased levels of resourcing.  We have also committed to an independent process review and will work to implement any recommendations that emerge from that review.  “We are fully committed to operating a sustainable business that properly identifies risk and better protects customers. We will continue to assist the Commission and work with other operators to improve practices in the areas identified.” The UKGC also revealed certain examples (with approximate figures), of failings identified as part of the investigation:A customer was allowed to deposit £654,000 over nine months without source of funds checks being carried out. The customer lived in rented accommodation and was employed within the accounts department of a business earning around £30,000 per annum.A customer was allowed to deposit £541,000 over 14 months after the operator made the assumption that the customer’s potential income could be £365,000 per annum based on a verbal conversation and without further probing. The reality was that the customer was earning around £30,000 a year and was funding his gambling habit by stealing from his employer.A customer who was allowed to deposit £653,000 in an 18 month period activated a financial alert at WHG. The alert resulted in a grading of ‘amber risk’ which required, in accordance with the licensee’s anti-money laundering policy, a customer profile to be reviewed. The file was marked as passed to managers for review but this did not occur due to a systems failure. The customer was able to continue gambling for a further six months despite continuing to activate financial alerts.A customer was identified by WHG as having an escalating gambling spend with deposit levels exceeding £100,000. WHG interacted with the customer seeking assurance that the customer was ‘comfortable with their level of spend’. After receiving verbal assurance and without investigating the wider circumstances the operator continued to allow the customer to gamble. In our view that interaction was inadequate and did not review the customer’s behaviour sufficiently to identify if their behaviour was indicative of problem gambling.A customer exceeded deposits of £147,000 in an 18 month period with an escalating spend and losses of £112,000. WHG systems identified the issue but its only response over a 12 month period was to send two automated social responsibility emails. Our view is that this action alone was not sufficient given the customer’s gambling behaviour coupled with the severity of the losses. Related Articles Submitlast_img read more

Ghana hold nerve to pip Nigeria in T20 thriller

first_imgThe Black Sticks of Ghana hold all the aces in the ICC World T20 Africa Qualifier A in Lagos, after they outlasted hosts Nigeria in a thrilling clash at the Tafawa Balewa Square Cricket Oval on Tuesday.Nigeria only managed to score 119 for eight in their 20 overs.Oladotun Olatunji gave his side something to bowl at, with an aggressive 46 off just 30 balls, while the top order fell around him.His skipper, Chilezie Onwuzulike was again in the runs, chipping in with a much-needed 33 from 29 balls.But, they were the only batsmen to reach double figures as the home side caved in badly.David Ankrah was the destroyer in chief, claiming three for 14 in four nagging overs. In pursuit of 120, Ghana took their time. Opener James Vifah struck a well-paced 32, to set the platform, before the on-song Simon Ateak finished with a nerveless 50 not out, to get them over the line with a ball to spare.In the earlier contest, Sierra Leone also had a successful chase, as they reined in the paltry total of 87 all out that The Gambia offered.Only Mbye Dumbuya made any headway with the bat, as The Gambian skipper made 20. The next highest contributor was the extras column of 18, supplemented by 13 wides.The target was a straightforward one for Sierra Leone, and they got home inside 13 overs.Abubakarr Kamara (26 not out), Ibrahim Mansaray (25) and Yegbeh Jalloh (20 not out) were all amongst the runs, as Sierra Leone opened their account. The second round of fixtures will now take place, starting on Wednesday. The Gambia play Ghana in the morning while Nigeria face Sierra Leone in the afternoon.Follow all the action live through here fixtures and more information for the tournament can be accessed here Table  TeamPlayedWonLostTied No ResultPointsNRRGhana3 30006 1,537Nigeria3210042,184Sierra Leone312002-1,161The Gambia303000-2,907last_img read more