Professor contrasts two WWI interpretations

first_imgJohn Deak, assistant professor of history at Notre Dame, gave a lecture Thursday on the divide between mainstream and revisionist interpretations of the Habsburg Empire’s downfall during World War I, as part of the Nanovic Institute World War I Lecture Series.“What I’ve seen in the last 30 years is a complete and utter gap between what World War I historians say about the Habsburg empire and what Habsburg scholars … say about the empire,” Deak said. “The problem is that we don’t talk to each other.”Deak said traditional scholarship views the Habsburg Empire as an outdated monarchy in decline even before the outbreak of World War I.“The Habsburg Empire is seen and written about as a weak political anachronism … that isn’t equipped to survive [after World War I],” Deak said. “It’s been cast as a historical breaking point when the golden epoch of the 19th century Europe crashes to an end.”Revisionists, on the other hand, view the Habsburg Empire as a functioning monarchy and seek alternative explanations for its collapse, he said.“The Habsburg Monarchy was vibrant: it was a functioning state under the rule of law,” Deak said. “I think [World War I] killed the empire in a dramatic way, but since the 1920’s … this idea has been completely downplayed.”Despite Austria-Hungary’s best efforts, World War I destroyed many years of political and infrastructural improvement, Deak said.“This bureaucratic state of trying to manage democracy and build infrastructure was completely thrown out the window,” he said “By the time 1917 comes around … there’s no way to put the thing back together again.”Many historians also overlook Austria-Hungary’s resilience during the war, Deak said, as the empire was forced to raise three armies between 1914 and 1916 despite losing over a million soldiers.Further study of the Habsburg Empire not only provides a better understanding of the causes of collapse, but it also sheds light on the war’s effects on Europe, he said.“We need to give the war more credit than we do,” he said. “I think if we tune our focus on understanding why an empire, which was continually evolving and aiming for multinational democracy … could collapse so quickly, we might understand the First World War in more important ways.”Though this revisionist argument provides “common-sense interpretations” on the downfall of Austria-Hungary, academia still favors the traditional view of a failing empire, Deak said.“The trope that the Habsburg monarchy in 1914 was on the verge of collapse when war broke out is something we’re going to see more and more of in the literature being published today,” he said.According to Deak, part of this divide is because World War I historians spend little time studying the Habsburg Empire, focusing only on the brief month of activity during which Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in June of 1914.“Historians of the First World War generally develop some interest in the Habsburg monarchy, but then they either forget it or they kick it off,” Deak said.In addition to viewing Austria-Hungary as the “sick-man” of Europe, “generalist” World War I scholars also believe the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy enabled the multiple nations formerly comprising the empire to develop as modern states, he said.“The First World War is the point in time that open the gates of this prison and lets these prisoners out,” Deak said. “This largely fits into the trope that the First World War was this modern cataclysm that broke open Central Europe.”Deak said it is important to recognize the effects of this divide in historical interpretation.“When we commemorate one thing, we inevitably don’t say other things,” he said. “I think history has become quite esoteric over the last 30 years.”Tags: austria-hungary, franz ferdinand, habsburg empire, history, john deak, nanovic lecture series, nanovice institute WWI series, WWI, WWI lecture serieslast_img read more

Special Olympics to host End the R-Word Day

first_imgThis week, Special Olympics Notre Dame is hosting their annual End the R-Word Day event as part of the awareness campaign Spread the Word to End the Word.Junior Shannon Golden, a member of Special Olympics Notre Dame, said the End the R-Word campaign asks students to pledge not to say the “R-Word,” retard or retarded.“We hope to raise awareness of how the R-word can hurt people and we want to promote respectful and inclusive language on the Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s campus,” Golden said.Senior co-president Laura Gardner said the club hopes to reach more students with the online pledging system it will use this year.“We traditionally have pledge stations all over campus collecting signatures from members of the Notre Dame community as they pledge, in short: ‘As a member of the Notre Dame community, I pledge to end the hurtful use of the word retard,’” Gardner said. “We’re using an online platform this year, instead of the traditional banner signing. We’re hoping we will be able to reach a wider audience online.”Gardner said Special Olympics Notre Dame is teaming up with other groups on campus, including Best Buddies, Special Friends and Super Sibs to promote the awareness campaign Spread the Word to End the Word.Golden said Spread the Word to End the Word began in 2009 at the Special Olympics Global Youth Activation Summit.“The Spread the Word to End the Word campaign was created by Soeren Palumbo [a 2011 graduate of Notre Dame] and Tim Shriver as a national awareness campaign to end the hurtful and derogatory use of the word ‘retard(ed)’,” Gardner said. “The goal is to highlight the dignity of people with intellectual disabilities and make the world a more positive place in the process. We hope to raise societal consciousness about the effect of our words.”According to Golden, the campaign is meant to encourage people to watch what they say.“It is an extremely derogatory and hurtful word,” Golden said. “The campaign hopes to create a more accepting and understanding attitude towards those with intellectual disabilities.”Tags: best buddies, Special Olympics Notre Dame, spread the word to end the word, Super Sibslast_img read more

Students reflect on summer service program

first_imgEight Saint Mary’s seniors gathered in Carroll Auditorium on Monday night to discuss their experiences living in Uganda with the Sisters of the Holy Cross and working in the Moreau Nursery and Primary School and the Kyembogo Holy Cross Health Centre. Their travels were part of the College’s Uganda Summer Practicum, which brings nursing and education majors together for six weeks in the Toro kingdom and exposes them to the culture of the Kyarusozi community and the core values of the Sisters of the Holy Cross.Senior nursing majors Allison Campbell, Madison Carmichael, Therese Dudro and Jovita Lledo Munoz, along with senior elementary education majors Anna McClowry, Katie Price, Megan Shea and Katherine Soper shared their memories from the 2017 Practicum.McClowry said participating in the program helped her hone valuable skills, such as establishing a teaching schedule, collaborating with the other teachers and writing lesson plans the day before class.“You kind of have to get creative,” she said. “There are some days when you’re exhausted and overwhelmed, but when you walk into a classroom, and you have kids smiling at you, it honestly makes your heart smile. The students and teachers are really, really appreciative of all your work there, so just know that your presence is enough in those times that you feel exhausted or overwhelmed.”Dudro said students working at the Kyembogo Holy Cross Health Centre helped with outpatient care, inpatient care and lab tests. Most of the 20 inpatient beds, she said, were filled by patients who had contracted malaria.“Unfortunately for them, [malaria] is kind of like the common cold here,” she said.  “Everyone gets malaria. It can be really serious. We saw some people that were in critical condition, some young children, and it was really scary to see them so sick.”Prices said she felt an overwhelming sense of community while working.“The first thing [the sisters] do when you arrive is make sure that you have that sense of home,” Price said. “I remember … we pulled up in the van after traveling for five hours that day … and Sister Lillian came out, helped us with our bags and the first thing that she said was, ‘Welcome home.’ You knew right then that you were going to be taken care of and well-loved.”Daily mass and regular prayer helped students embrace the four core values of compassion, faith, prayer and community, Soper said.“Their faith life is unbelievable,” she said. “It is quite an opportunity to be able to live with the Sisters of the Holy Cross and in their community. You are right there with them. You are living out their faith life with them, and you are on that journey to Heaven with them.”Tags: education, nursing, Sisters of the Holy Cross, Uganda Summer Practicumlast_img read more

Guest speaker weighs in on implications of military history

first_imgJesse Kauffman, associate professor of history at Eastern Michigan University, presented a lecture on the nature of military history and the role of war in European history in DeBartolo Hall on Monday. Chris Collins | The Observer Associate professor of history at Eastern Michigan University, Jesse Kauffman, offers his perspective on military history during a lecture about the dynamics of war, which took place in DeBartolo Hall on Monday.Kauffman said his definition of military history aids him immensely in his approaches to teaching and conducting research.“It can be very difficult to define with any kind of precision or clarity exactly what military history is,” Kauffman says. “I think it can help clarify things by dividing military history into three distinct, but overlapping subfields.”At one end of the spectrum is operational history, Kauffman said. Once the sole branch of military history, operational history has come to encompass just one aspect of military history as it is known today, he said, and it refers to the classic, detailed narrative of battles and large military formations on battlefields.“It has an important role to play within the role of military history and within history more generally,” Kauffman said. “Operational history enriches our understanding of the dynamics of war and the societies that fight them.”Operational history, however, has its limits when it comes to analysis, Kauffman said. On the other end of the spectrum, he said, is a term coined the “new” military history.“[‘New’ military history is] much more amorphous and ambiguous than operational history,” Kauffman said. “It arose by applying the questions and methodology of social and cultural history to military institutions, particularly armies.”This approach to military history, Kauffman said, includes applying ideas such as citizenship and gender to the analysis of military history. Its shortcoming, however, occurs when military history becomes nearly devoid of war.“New military history has broadened out to include not just studies of armies, but really almost any kind of social and cultural history that intersects with, even in a kind of tangential way, with war,” Kauffman says. “At best, topics bear a faint family resemblance to the field as it used to be.”He said the “new” military history often loses sight of the violence that comes with war.“If the term military history is going to have any meaning at all, it must not lose sense of that terrible thing at its core,” he said.Kauffman said he identifies a third and final perspective of military history as an intermediate between operational history and the “new” military history.“The war and society approach blends what is best at both of the far ends of the spectrum, while avoiding each of their excesses,” Kauffman said.This approach, Kauffman said, can be viewed as a synthesis of traditional operational history of war and the “new” military history of outside influences.“It is the study, very broadly speaking, of the interrelationship between wars, as well as military institutions and the larger political, social, technological, economic, even cultural context within which they are created and which wars and military institutions, in turn, influence,” he said.It is this approach that Kauffman said is the prevailing perspective of military history and the one he applies to his own teaching and research.He said this methodology relates to some of the broad themes of military history he teaches, such as armed forces and their organization, the way different societies fight wars and the impact of wars on both politics and culture.“I focus mainly on World War I, and I look at the way states, especially Germany, reacted to the unforeseen demands of total war, how they tried to mobilize their resources to fight this kind of war,” Kauffman said. “I’ve also looked broadly at the way the war interacted with other historical forces and processes.” Tags: Dahnke Ballroom, Eastern Michigan University, military history, new military history, operational historylast_img read more

Saint Mary’s student promotes healthy living through social media

first_imgIntended to promote positivity and wellness to all students at the College, Saint Mary’s senior Perla Ocadiz has launched a new healthy lifestyle campaign, something she said was inspired by her mom.“My mother introduced me to health and fitness at an early age,” she said. “My first major fitness milestone was making the top-ranked field hockey team at my school after training with my mother.”Ocadiz said she also attributes her passion and success with fitness to her personal struggles with weight and body image when she was younger. “I used to have an eating disorder,” she said. “I was super restricting my calories. I had a negative body image. I was over-exercising by running 12 miles a day.” Once Ocadiz realized this mentality was harming her well-being, however, she said she began to re-define herself. “Through my training I’m able to see the progress I’m making, and in the gym realize the performance I’m doing out there — and through that I feel so much better about myself,” Ocadiz said. “Now I never weigh myself on the scale.” Ocadiz said she recommends healthy choices in the dining hall and a positive exercise regimen for college students navigating struggles with healthy living. “Step it up a notch and get your vitamins and nutritional profile from what you’re eating to diversify your diet,” she said. “ … Don’t be afraid to try out different workout regimens even if they’re different than society’s standards.” In addition to creating a positive impact in her own life, Ocadiz said she couldn’t just stop there. She wants to take her own passions and turn them into an influential and motivating experience for others. As part of this mission, Ocadiz said she believes the most effective way of introducing this beneficial lifestyle is through social media. “I completely deleted my personal page so I could be completely devoted to my fitness page, because my true passions lie in the fitness and health industries,” she said. “I deleted my personal account because I wanted to stimulate authentic conversation about these topics. I wanted to be inspired and be a personal source of inspiration for people. I wanted to start a completely new positive social media algorithm.”Ocadiz said she is promoting easy lifestyle changes that will ultimately result in a more promising personal outlook. “Healthy food isn’t bland or boring,” she said. “Follow some social media accounts you wouldn’t normally follow in order to give you ideas about combining different foods. If you’re scared of trying a new type of food, don’t be. It may be surprising to you, and you may like it. Remember, stick to positivity because that is the best source of inspiration.”Tags: Body Image, health, Healthier Lifestyle, positive thinkinglast_img read more

Former Saint Mary’s student reported missing near Chicago

first_imgFormer Saint Mary’s student Tiffany Keokanlaya of South Elgin, Illinois, was reported missing by her family Saturday night, a news release from the South Elgin Police Department said.The police release said Keokanlaya used a family credit card to purchase a train ticket at the Metra station in Elgin, a village about 40 miles west of Chicago. She was last seen on video Saturday in Chicago near Union Station at the intersection of Canal Street and Jackson Boulevard.Photo courtesy of Courtney Souvannasacd Keokanlaya is 19 years old. The release describes her as an Asian female with black hair and brown eyes who is 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 151 pounds. She was last seen wearing a yellow shirt, blue jeans and glasses and carrying a black backpack and black suitcase, the release said.Keokanlaya was with another Asian female who appeared to be the same age, and she did not appear to be in distress, the release said. Keokanlaya has no known health-related issues, but police said her leaving the family home without notice is unusual.Police suspect no foul play at this time, but are seeking the public’s assistance in locating Keokanlaya and ensuring she is in good health.Keokanlaya’s brothers Josh and Jon, and her cousin Courtney Souvannasacd created the Facebook page “Bring Tiffany Home” for updates on her whereabouts.Keokanlaya’s father, Vanlob Keokanlaya, said family and friends are working to find her.“We love her and miss her and want her to come home,” he said.A GoFundMe created Wednesday in support of the Keokanlaya family raised over $1,500 in the span of a day for “the search efforts and costs associated with finding and bringing [the family’s] daughter/sister home.”Saint Mary’s senior Liv Sencion met Keokanlaya through Belles Connect, a Multicultural Services Office program for first generation, international, underrepresented and home-schooled students. Keokanlaya was in the process of transferring to Elgin Community College, and is listed in the Saint Mary’s directory as an “ex-student,” but Sencion said she still holds a place in the Saint Mary’s community.“She is still a part of our SMC community,” Sencion said in an Instagram direct message. “She was [a] Belles Connect Scholar and always will be.”Anyone with information about Keokanlaya’s whereabouts should contact the South Elgin Police Department at (847) 741-2151.Tags: elgin, metra, missing person, Saint Mary’s College, Tiffany Keokanlayalast_img read more

Saint Mary’s organizations host Black History Month events

first_imgGina Twardosz | The Observer Junior Healy Keenan gave a presentation on the contributions of black women throughout history as part of the College’s History Club’s Black History Month programming.“When I grew up, I took AP U.S. History and talking about slavery took a week, max,” she said. “We’d breeze through it like it was nobody’s business. And I didn’t understand why — maybe it’s a difficult discussion from the educator side or maybe people just didn’t care enough to have the discussion. But we’re going to have these discussions now during Black History Month and make it a spectacle — we want you to see just how important these people are to American history because they affect our lives today.”Simpson said Black History Month is a celebration of those who struggled to advance the rights of black people in America.  “The reality is that we get to celebrate those who came before us and have done so much to pave the way because they didn’t have the same rights as we do now,” she said. Kwapong emphasized that the struggles of black individuals are not over just because Black History Month has become mainstream in popular culture.  “I think it’s important to take into consideration that a lot of people think racism is dead or that injustice was so long ago,” she said. “Racism is a systematic thing and it doesn’t change just because it’s 2020.”In honor of Black History Month, the Black Student Association hosted a trivia night Monday evening in Regina Hall. The questions were full of history about the achievements of black people and the contributions they have made to American society. Sophomore Akpedze Balo, who serves as treasurer for the Black Student Association, said that she planned for the trivia night to educate students about black scholars.“I’m really focused on black intellectuals or scholars and scientists that people may not know at all because our history and textbooks are almost all whitewashed of all these famous people,” Balo said. “There are all these black people who have had great contributions to our intellectual thought within society — but not many people know about them.”Kwapong said she feels these events are relevant because even though Black History Month has become popular, many who do not take part in the celebration of black history during February remain ignorant about the issues affecting black people in America. “People who don’t show up to events during Black History Month are not getting educated, so I feel that we should continue to host these events during Black History Month until people start to educate themselves on black history,” she said.  On the other side of campus, history club hosted its own event Monday evening in honor of Black History Month. Junior Healy Keenan presented on the contributions of black women in Spes Unica Hall in order to educate and empower the students of Saint Mary’s.“This was actually inspired by a rector at Fisher Hall who pointed out to me that black women aren’t really known for their accomplishments as we often study black men during Black History Month, so I figured it would be a good idea to represent black women in history,” she said. “I’ll be talking about the first established poet, the first nurse, the first college graduate, the first fastest women in the world and the first bank president.”Because women are often removed from the historical narrative, Keenan said that through this presentation on representation, she wants to remind students they have the ability to do anything, despite the challenges and obstacles they may face. “I want students to take away from the presentation that we, women, are empowered and we can do anything we set our mind to through passion,” Keenan said. Ferry said that students who study history have a responsibility to advocate for the teaching of black history and the black experience. “It’s the historian’s job to listen and record the stories of underrepresented groups and make them known,” she said. Senior Mary Stechschulte, secretary of History Club, said that as an education major, she said celebrating black history is an important way to facilitate discussions between black people and white people. “History is so whitewashed — I want my students to see history as something that represents them as well,” she said. “Not a lot of schools really talk about non-European history, so I think having events where we really do focus on the history of black people is important because a lot of the time their historical contributions are skipped over.”  Representing black people accurately in the classroom is also a crucial part of being an educator, Stechschulte said.   “I’ve taught history to fifth graders who are black and showed them black historical figures and they’ll tell me that that’s the first time they’ve seen someone from history who looks like them,” she said.  The takeaway from all these events, Simpson said, is that all people are encouraged to educate themselves on black history, regardless of their race. “We want people who aren’t black to show up to Black Student Association events because these conversations must happen and must continue to happen,” she said. “Come out to our events because we want to share our knowledge with you and socialize with you and engage in conversation and dialogue. Whether you agree or not, we understand that there are different perspectives in the world, that maybe you didn’t understand something then but you do now — if anything, you can learn.”Tags: Black History Month, culture, history, society Black History Month is an important time to celebrate the achievements of black people while adding to a renewed sense of visibility and awareness for the black experience in America. Two Saint Mary’s organizations, the Black Student Association and the History Club, held events on Monday night to celebrate the historical and cultural contributions black people have made throughout history. History club president and senior Elizabeth Ferry said that while Black History Month is important, there should be a celebration of black achievement every day. “We should be amplifying black stories all year round,” she said. “But using February to focus on the contributions of black people and get their stories out there is really important.” The concept of a single month being devoted to black history has been debated for years. Junior Jazzlyn Kwapong said that while black history should be integrated with other U.S. history teachings, Black History Month forces all Americans to focus on the contributions of black Americans until they become as well known as those contributions from white Americans. Senior Hannah Simpson, president of the Black Student Association, said she feels that Black History Month is crucial, especially since the history classes she took in high school barely covered history pertinent to the black experience like slavery or the Civil Rights Movement.last_img read more

Student Activities Office and Campus Dining to co-host ‘Halloween Spooktacular’

first_imgTo celebrate Halloween this year, the Student Activities Office (SAO) and Campus Dining will co-sponsor a “Halloween Spooktacular” event on Saturday. After the success of the Fall Fest, the two organizations are excited to host another evening of festive activities for students.Alicia Bates, assistant director of student programming for SAO, explained that this event will serve as a way for students to come together to celebrate Halloween, as well as to unwind in a fun, stress-free way.“Part of SAO’s mission is to enhance the overall student experience through exposure to and participation in recreational and social opportunities that allow students to maintain existing and create new connections,” Bates said. “It is our hope that by planning these events during a time when students are looking to celebrate not just a holiday, but a season, we are offering fun and healthy events that assist in creating community for our students.”In the spirit of Halloween festivity, students and staff are encouraged to come to the Spooktacular dressed up in costumes that are safe and appropriate. Available activities include a Jack-O-Lantern contest, hall-to-hall trick-or-treating, a fog photo opportunity and various crafts. McWell plans to sponsor an Apothecary with essential-oils, and two movies, “Haunted Mansion and Ghostbusters (1984),” will be played on North Quad and Library Lawn, respectively. A full schedule of events can be found on SAO’s website.SAO has been working closely with Campus Dining to prepare for the event and align the planned activities with the menu in an effort to make the Spooktacular an enjoyable experience for all. Beginning at 5 p.m., Halloween-themed meals will be served outside North Dining Hall, followed by beverages and desserts served from 8 p.m. to 11 p.m. across campus.Senior director for Campus Dining Chris Abayasinghe expressed his goal to make the event a wholesome, fully-encompassing experience.“Halloween is a fun time to be able to celebrate everything ghoulish and delicious about the holiday, so from our perspective, it’s to really host an event that provides an opportunity for students to enjoy a version of trick-or-treating,” Abayasinghe said. “We also looked to activate other festivities around campus so that way it’s a more holistic experience than just celebrating with a meal.”Meals will be pre-packaged in “takeout pumpkin” baskets that allow students to use them for trick-or-treating afterwards. This method of distribution upholds the necessary COVID-19 guidelines that Campus Dining has been adhering to all semester.In pre-pandemic years, Campus Dining has celebrated the holiday a bit differently, Abayasignhe explained.“In years past, we would celebrate Halloween in the actual dining halls,” he said. “We played to some of the architectural specifics in some of these spaces. For example, South Dining Hall obviously looks very much like Hogwarts, so we had butterbeer and things along those lines. This year, given both the meal service style as well as the need to maintain physical distancing, we had to get creative.”With this goal in mind, Campus Dining held a chili cookoff this week to identify the best chili recipe. The winning chili will be featured in the Halloween meal package.Additionally, executive pastry chef Sinai Vespie recently won the Food Network’s Halloween Baking Championship, and the Halloween Spooktacular will feature Vespie’s desserts from her victory.Abayasinghe hopes that this event will help bring a sense of fun and entertainment to a semester that has been stressful for many community members.“I understand truly that everything is a part of a new normal,” Abyasinghe said. “I would say that our students have been through one of the most dynamically changing semesters thus far, and just being able to celebrate a holiday like Halloween is incredibly important. I think it’s important for us to acknowledge the semester as it has been and also to help students appreciate Halloween and eat candy. I mean, how cool is that?”Tags: Chris Abayasinghe, COVID-19, Halloween Spooktacular, notre dame campus dining, SAOlast_img read more

Chautauqua County Sheriff’s Office Looking For Stolen Tractors

first_imgARKWRIGHT — The Chautauqua County Sheriff’s Office is seeking information in connection with the theft of two farm tractors last week.The Sheriff’s Office says the tractors were taken from a farm on Center Road in the Town of Arkwright sometime between 5:30 a.m. and 7:30 a.m. last FridayThe tractors are described as a 2017 John Deere 1025R color green with a belly mower and a front loader.The second tractor is a 2018 Kubota M7060 color orange. Anyone with information regarding this investigation are encouraged to call the Chautauqua County Sheriff’s Office at 716-753-4921, or call the WeTip number 800-782-7463.Those calling to provide information to the Sheriff’s Office can remain anonymous if they wish. Share:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Schumer Announces Additional Pandemic Relief Funds For New York State

first_imgShare:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window),That’s all well and good but Cuomo will just stick it in his pocket like all the rest!,Free money again sure just keep handing it out and our taxes will just keep going up Senate Democrats / CC BY 2.0 NEW YORK – New York’s Senior Senator says the state will receive $2 billion in additional pandemic relief funds from the federal government part of an agreement with the incoming presidential administration.Senator Chuck Schumer (D) announced on Thursday the funding will be provided from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.Schumer, who will likely become the new majority leader in the U.S. Senate, says the agreement was reached with the incoming Biden administration.“President-elect Biden is laser-focused on America’s economic recovery, and this recovery begins with tackling the costs states and local governments have incurred in managing the pandemic,” Schumer said. “For New York, the costs have been huge and will take years to overcome entirely, but achieving my goal of 100% FEMA cost share to New York will mean a sigh of relief for all New Yorkers because these critical dollars will help protect essential services and workers while we deal with badly burdened budgets that have been gut-punched by COVID.” The money will be directed to help with the local costs borne by the pandemic and closed budget gaps made worse by the pandemic. The current policy allows for 75 percent of COVID-related expenses covered by a federal disaster relief fund.The deal means all expenses will be fully reimbursed within the coming months.last_img read more